World Health Organization WHO … An information note about firing chemical weapons


The World Health Organization WHO:

An information note about firing chemical weapons (1)

March 2013 (warning markers about firing chemical weapons)


Firing the chemical weapons may not always appear immediately due to the fact that they may be odorless, colorless, and some of them do not cause tangible effects or symptoms directly.

Keep vigilant about the following indicators of chemicals:

– The activating of emergency alert systems (EAS).

– The ambulance staff, the emergency staff, and the media personnel are in full swing.

– Putting on the personal protective equipment such as respiratory protection and chemoprevention suits.

– Destroying the personal protective equipment.

– An explosion with few or no destructive injuries.

– Oily mist droplets on the surfaces.

– Low clouds, mist, dusty fog, or colored particles.

– Low or mist is linked to weather clouds, fog powdered, or Dhirarat hanging or perhaps the same color.

– Unusual or non-arranged drizzle by the authorities in the region.

– Disturbing odors (the smell of garlic, bitter almond), peach kernel, newly cut straw, grass, or rocket.

– Unusual number of dead animals in the region.

– Injuries show symptoms of vomiting, difficulty of breath, convulsions, or delirium or symptoms of disease that are not compatible with the natural disease.

– A number of injuries that shows the same symptoms.

– Extensive number of injuries without clear reason.

What should we do in case of firing chemical weapons?

If the firing is inside the building or in an enclosed space, you have to do as much as possible to find a place with clean air as quickly as possible: get out of the building without passing through the contaminated area and break the window to get clean air.

If you are outside the building, or outside area where the chemical weapons are fired you have to:

Avoid any obvious vapor column or cloud. Cover your mouth, nose, and the uncovered skin as much as possible (roll down your sleeves and close the buttons of your coat or jacket).

Stay away from the emission source, try to walk against the wind away from the source.

Go to a building to shelter: Choose a room meet the following specifications:

Big room close to the bathroom, preferably containing a phone.

In the upstairs and with few windows as possible.

Try to plug the room to make a temporary barrier between the contaminated air outside and the clean one inside.

Close all the windows, doors, ventilation outlets, and smokestacks, and plug them if possible with plastic sheeting and adhesive tapes or anything at your fingertips such as wet towels.

Turn off the fans, air conditioning, and heating systems with forced air (pushing air).

Watch television, listen to the radio, and open the Internet again and again to get the official news and instructions when it is available.

Assess your situation and determine when you’re in safe, go to a safe place.

If you have been contaminated or exposed to chemicals:

Avoid contact with others because you may cause a secondary pollution.

Take the following steps:

Take off your clothes, put them in a plastic bag, and then close and seal it.

Wash your body with soap (which is preferably to be a liquid) or water only.

Wash your eyes with water.

Put on new clothes.

Seek medical care if you are subjected to chemicals even if you don’t suffer from instant symptoms.

An information note about firing chemical weapons:

March 2013

The symptoms of exposure to highly toxic chemicals:

Type of the toxic chemicals The usual symptoms of exposure
Nerve agents (such as Sarin, Tabun, and VX) Corestenoma
Copious secretions
Tearing, sweating, runny nose
Muscle twitching, fasciculation
Blurred vision
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Chest tightness with breathing difficulties
Convulsions, syncope
Blister agents (such as Mustard Gas) Tearing
Eye irritation
Damage to the cornea
Redness of the skin with blisters and pain (may be delayed)
Respiratory distress
Blood agents ( Hydrogen Cyamide) The possibility of changes in skin color: cerise (Cyanide or Cyanogen Chloride)
Cyanosis or changing the color of the lips and skin into blue-gray
Breathlessness, gasping for air


An information note about firing chemical weapons March 2013


Decontamination from the health facilities:

Make sure to remove the patients’ contamination outside the health facility where you are before going on for treatment, even if the symptoms do not appear.

Make sure also that the decontamination area is clearly marked, encircled, cordoned off, locked, and all patients who leave the region free of contamination.

The decontamination procedures should be carried out by a professional trained staff, and the persons concerned to remove contamination should wear personal protective equipment.

Basic emergency tools for decontamination:


(5-10 liter) buckets.

Sponges, soft brushes, clothes brushes.

Liquid soap /rinsing or washing liquid/ shampoo without conditioner.

Source of warm water, brine 0.9%, topical anesthetic eye drops.

Towels for one use /dry clothing/.

Large plastic bags (for clothing and packaging twice).

Small and clean plastic bags (for jewelry, watches, luggage, and other precious purposes).

Id stickers.

Fixed containers for the used decontamination equipment.

Clothing, blankets / or alternative blankets for prudery.

Remove contaminated:

Explain what you are going to do before and during you are doing it.

Take off the patient’s shoes because they may be contaminated or carried contaminated dust.

Remove the clothing or cut them gently and quickly (this may reduce pollution by 80 to 90%).

Do not reverse the cloth or take it over the head. If the cloth is close fitting, do not tear it up or pull, drink it completely and gently with water so it can be separated from the underlying tissue underneath it.

Gently used scissors to cut the clothing, being aware of the sensitive or wounded areas of the body, carefully take off the clothing as not to cause harm.

Remove all the accessories, gems, jewelers, watches, rings, hearing support devices, and contact lenses. Fold clothes from the outside to the middle to contain the contamination. The glasses can be decontaminated and returned to the patient after cleaning.

Put the clothing and accessories in a big plastic bag and put an Id sticker on the bag.

If the injury is on the emergency stretcher, take off the person’s chopped clothing to clean up the place (the emergency stretcher).

Decontamination of the contaminated area.

Remove the contamination by Rinse – Wipe – Rinse technique.

Hold all the waste of decontamination including water as much as possible.

Step 1:

Rinse / wash the affected patios gently with soap and water (brine 0.9% with the open wounds and eyes):

This reduces pollution and removes the particles and chemicals with water-based.

At first, start with the face and the respiratory tracts then go down to the feet and pay attention to the skin folds, nails, ears, and hair.

Wash the eyes with copiously water and brine 0.9%.

Step 2:

Gently but fully and comprehensively clean the infected patios with a sponge, soft mattresses, or soft clothes’ brush. This removes the organic and petroleum chemicals (not soluble in water).

Step 3:

Use a specialized decontamination lotion such as (RSDL) Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion.

Use the interactive skin decontamination lotion, liquid soap, or shampoo without conditioner.

Step 4:

Gently rinse the infected patios with towels that are for one use. Think of dressing the open wounds.

Be sure to decontaminate all the staff before leaving the decontamination area.

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